Music Synthesizer for Android is a synth based on a very high quality emulation of the Yamaha DX7, plus a 4-pole resonant filter. It's an open source project as well, so please check out the project link for code and more.
There is also experimental USB MIDI keyboard support, for devices that support USB host mode.
This project was featured in the Google I/O 2013 talk, "High Performance Audio for Android", as an example of how to accomplish low latency, reliable audio playback.
0.95: Major UI redesign. New 3-row keyboard layout. Velocity sensitivity, with settings for sensitivity.
0.94: Fixed Moto X/G crashes. Much better USB MIDI keyboard support.
0.93: Brand new resonant filter with much more accurate response (based on matrix exponential math) and now overdrive! Also fix crashes on non-NEON devices.